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Boudhanath Stupa

UNESCO has listed eight out of many cultural sites of Nepal in the list of world's heritage sites. Of eight cultural heritage sites, seven of them glorifies the Kathmandu Valley.
World Heritage Sites - Culturally

UNESCO has listed eight out of many cultural sites of Nepal in the list of world's heritage sites. Of eight cultural heritage sites, seven of them glorifies the Kathmandu Valley, which are within the distance of 20 kilometers. Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swayambhunath Stupa, Pashupatinath Temple, Bouddhanath Stupa, Changu Narayan Temple are within the valley whereas the birth place of Lord Buddha, Lumbini is the only cultural Heritage site outside the valley.

Kathmandu Durbar Square
Kathmandu Durbar square, also known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar. It once used to be the residence of the Nepali royal family and administrators. It consists of huge Royal Palace with different temples, inside as well as outside the temple, dating from the 15th to the 18th century. This palace is named after Hanuman, the monkey god, as a stone statue of Hanuman is placed right next to the main entrance protecting the whole palace. This durbar square contains of: Taleju Bhawani Temple-built in 1549 AD by king Mahendra Malla, Jagannath Temple which is built in 16th century and well known for fascinating erotic figures carved in the wooden struts, Kala Bhairav which is also the one of the largest 17th century stone statue in Kathmandu, Temple of Kumari-The living goddess of Nepal and Kasthamandap which is built with the timber of a single tree. Besides these, other fascinating parts of this palace complex is the towering Nautale Durbar overlooking the beautiful city and the vast Basantapur square. It is famous for its many intricately carved doors, windows, etc.


Patan Dubar Square
This is the Royal Palace complex built during the Malla period and stood as the capital part till 17th century. Situated in the heart of the city, it constitutes the salient focus of an alien visitor's attraction. The square is built of ancient palaces, temples, shrines and statues noted for their exquisite carvings. We owe all these grandeurs to the sovereign Malla dynasty. The last of the Malla dynasty was late King Tej Narsingh Malla. There include three main courtyards, the first being the Keshab Narayan Chowk which we have gotten to enter through the Golden Window; the second being the Taleju Vawani Chowk; and the third being the Sudari Chowk carrying the Royal Bath called Tushahity. The single stone pillar on which sits late King Yog Narendra Malla facing the Taleju Vawani Temple to the cardinal direction of east and the Gigantic Bell to its right are also worth mentioning.

Bhaktapur Durbar Square
The main square of the city which used to be the capital part of old Bhadgaon kingdom contains numerous temples and monuments of wonderful nature. The first striking city mark would be the 55 Windowed Palace built by late King Vupatindra Malla with which the three kingdoms of Kantipur, Lalitpur and Kirtipur envied a lot. This jealousy often lead to some political strife as well. The 55 Windowed Palace is a unique type of structure, so it is the only kind in all modern Nepal without a single imitation or duplication or replica appearing elsewhere. The first ten windows decently face west, thirty-five face south and the remaining ten face east. The Golden Gate, the Gigantic Bell, the stone Pillar of late Bhupatindra Malla and the Chayaslin Mandap (Octogonal Pagoda) look gorgeous. The National Art Gallery although closed on Tuesdays expose a large and detailed collection of marvelous stone-crafts and scroll-paintings. Entering through the Golden Gate  we can find Taleju Vawani Temple and the Royal Bath. Very obviously every city has a Taleju Vawani Temple as She is believed to be the Protector of the city by the orthodox Hindus. The Royal Bath yet looks glamorous with the image of the Serpent God in the middle of the sanatorium although the water-spout has completely dried up.

Changu Narayan
This is the oldest Hindu Temple of the Valley built atop a hill village called Changu. Dedicated to lord Champak Narayan, it is declared to have been built by late King Hari Barma in 323 A.D. who also virtually belonged to the Lichhavi dynasty. The two-roofed pagoda temple is richly decorated with sculptures and carvings. To the ethnic Newars it is known as 'Sako Changu'. And the most authentic inscription located in the precinct of Champak Narayan is dated 464 A.D., according to King Man Dev.

Swayambhu Stupa
This is believed to be 25 centuries old and stands as one of the world's oldest Buddhist Chaityas. Swayambhu embraces the authentic philosophy of Bajrayan in particular and honors Lord Adi Buddha. The Stupa which forms the salient structure is well composed of a solid hemisphere of terra-cotta bricks and the all-seeing eyes of Lord Buddha, keeping an eternal watch on the Valley distinguishing between vice and virtue. It is some two miles west of Kathmandu City proper across the holy Bishnumati River. Situated on the top of a hillock, it is about 500 feet above  the level of Valley. The whole hill is a mosaic of small Chaityas and pagoda temples possessing great dignity plus beauty. There also exist six big Buddhist monasteries in all-five Mahayan (Lamaist) and one Hinyan (Therbadist). On the hind hill is located another important Buddhist shrine; it is called Manjushree. This compassionate Chinese Buddha is the God of Knowledge.

Boudhanath Stupa
This world heritage site of Nepal is declared to stand as the largest Buddhist shrine of South Asia. The ancient colossal chhorten was built in the 6th century AD by King Man Dev belonging to the Lichhabi dynasti. It rests on a series of three terraces and from the bird's eye view it takes the relevant shape of a lotus flower which indeed remains a very holy object for the devout Buddhists of the entire world. The chhorten is surrounded by a circular market which forms a part of Tibet Town. In this case also the four pairs of the Buddha's eyes give a vivid flash to the four cardinal directions, meaning to keep a diligent watch over the people and their commitments all day all night. The chhorten embraces the authentic philosophy of Mahayan the faith of which is known as Lamaism in Sikkim, Ladakh, Bhutan and Tibet.

Pashupatinath Temple
This heritage is the holiest of shrines of the Hindus all over the world is about six kilometers east of hanuman Dhoka Royal Complex. The golden temple of Lord Pashupati on the bank of holy Bagmati River in Kathmandu, is in the centre surrounded by numerous shrines and rest houses. Lord Pashupati is represented by the holy Lingam which is a stalised phallic symbol based on the cosmic principle. The temple has four doors on four sides with the figurative head facing each of the four doors from which the Hindus have Darshan of the Lord, but they cannot enter the temple. Only the King of Nepal, and Shankaracharyas of India can enter the shrine to worship.

Lumbini is the sound birth place of Lord Siddhartha Gautam Buddha-the Apostle of Compassion & Non-Violence. He is not only the Light of Asia but the Messenger of Universal Peace as well. The auspicious garden of Lumbini is situated amidst the newly established town of Siddharthanagar in the hot Terai plains of west Nepal. The broken Ashokan Pillar, holy remnants of an old Buddhist monastery, divine images of the Buddha's mother Great Maya Devi, etc are still well preserved here. Extensive excavation task is being carried out with promising effects.

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